The architecture of Gothic cathedrals
The architecture of Gothic cathedrals makes a double impression. With one hand of a person striking virtuosity of stone designs, a bold idea engineer, a wonderful sense of statics, according to P. L. Nervi, an almost unthinkable combination of experience and skills for the building in kind. On the other hand, an impassioned religious feeling of the unusual, mysterious transformation of bulky heavy stone in a visually light and airy lace.
The main source of information of Gothic architecture becomes a structural and thematic plastic. Monumental, impregnable walls enclosed, confined spaces Romanesque buildings give way to the dismembered elements of the stone frame of the surface, not having, as the internal space, clear material boundaries.
Changing figurative language — statics, stability do not meet the thoughts loose from feudal dependence of citizens. Increasing the public value of the free cities, awakening the feeling of human dignity, opportunity, individual personality dynamics more consistent looks to the sky, spires, spirituality, emotionality, inconsistency like dissolving Continue reading
Come out from the banks of the underground river?
24 September lecture “Smart Moscow” held in the reading room of Turgenev lecture Maxim Deputatova, specialist in the history of the Moscow metro. The expert told about the underground rivers in the capital, but also about the very principle of construction of collectors and the history of such communications. We all know that the pipe size named in honor of the pipe, in which flows the river Neglinka, but did you know that a pipe was there during the reign of Catherine II? Slon leads a condensed version of the lecture.
In Moscow there are about 170 small rivers, streams. The city stands on this spot many centuries, it grows, develops, and with it changes and hydraulics. Why do people build all kinds of waterworks in the city (in the city, agriculture we do not consider)? The answer is simple: to solve the problem of wastewater – where else? Wastewater is not just sewage, and any liquid waste of human life. How did you solve the required problem old man? Yes is not solved, just poured all over the fence and calmed down. But slowly the ideas came to dig some channels, pin boards, stones. And even better – tile the top. Thus appeared the first drainage tunnels. The famous Maxim of the Roman Cloaca ( Cloaca Maxima, the Great sewer) was one of the first drainage systems in the world, it was built in the VI century BC and has survived to the present Continue reading
Baroque, Rococo, techno, Gothic and many other styles represented on the streets of Polish cities. Time, wars, human envy has not spared the architectural masterpieces of Warsaw (Warszawa), Gdynia (Gdynia), Malbork (Malbork) and many other less famous fortresses. Especially cruel to the architectural masterpieces was the Second World war. Technologies of destruction have multiplied and the Nazis were not slow to use them in the mercenary purposes: all that it was impossible to carry with him – mercilessly exploded. And only unparalleled courage and divine Providence can explain the rescuing of Krakow (Krakow).
Unprecedented scale has reached the restoration work. Over the years, literally brick by brick restored Royal castle (Zamek Krolewski w Warszawie), Royal łazienki (Lazenkovsky Palace) the Palace, Ujazdowski castle (Zamek Ujazdowski), the castle complex (Zamek Krolewski w Leczycy). Absolutely can not believe that the historic centre of Warsaw built-up buildings not older than 50 years. Now it’s not only the monuments of culture is testimony to the great love of the poles of their heritage.
First, extant, objects belong to the Romanesque style. Harsh churches, high trehspalnye the aisle, no decorations. An example is the Cistercian Cathedral in Oliva, located in close proximity of Gdansk (Gdansk) in the 13th century.
In contrast to the minimalist forms of the early middle ages, architects century 21 Continue reading