The origins of architecture
The construction belongs to the most ancient human activities, which means that many thousands of years ago the Foundation was laid for the future development of architecture.
The prehistoric period through the use of different material and techniques of making tools can be divided into the following main stages: stone ( of the stone age — Paleolithic new stone — Neolithic ), bronze and iron ages. However it is very difficult to clearly define their boundaries, as the development of human society has always been uneven.
Preserved remains of human settlements indicate the existence of different lifestyles of people in different areas of the globe and at different stages in the history of mankind.
Obnaruzhena dwellings of the early period of the upper Paleolithic represent probobally in terms of dwelling with one hearth. Most often it is the dugout, a large number of which were found in different regions of the CIS (left-Bank Ukraine, the Dnipro basin, districts of the Bryansk, Voronezh, Irkutsk etc). Also in the late Paleolithic period, there were more elongated and greater in size dwelling, if attached to each other oval dugouts, with multiple foci. At the end of Continue reading
Since the days of the Roman Empire preserved the most ancient European sculpture equestrian monument — a bronze equestrian statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (II century). The mighty horse is walking like a proud gait, the rider raised his hand in greeting… But the face of Marcus Aurelius aloof, introspective, tired. A realistic portrait of the Emperor-philosopher seems inconsistent with the heroic image of a courageous leader.
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius (166-180). Although this Emperor was a philosopher and stoic (in his book “Alone with myself” he wrote: “…All related to the body like a stream, to the soul — a dream and smoke. Life is a struggle and the journey through the wilderness”), his bronze monument contemporaries perceived as a symbol of military power of Rome.
At the end of III — early IV century Roman portraits has changed a lot. Sculptors less is the beauty and grandeur of appearance, nature and mood of the person. Appearance begin transmitting simply: huge eyes, conventionally decorative head of hair, often distorted body proportions. This was associated with what was a new era — the era of the Christian worldview.
External beauty was considered a non-major, all attention was given to the spiritual principle in man. A striking monument of that time — a giant head of Constantine I (early IV century). In the portrait of its Creator managed Continue reading
Download: Terra Incognita. Helena Blavatsky
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…Looked at whether the person imposing ruins of Memphis or Palmyra, whether at the foot of the great pyramid at Giza, wandering on the banks of the Nile, pondering whether among the mysterious abandoned citadel of Petra, no matter how vague it may seem to the origins of these cultural remnants of the prehistoric era, he gradually finds a fairly solid ground for the conjecture. No matter how impenetrable a curtain that hides the history of the ancient monuments, though here and there appear gleams, through which you can see the light. Known descendants of those who erected these monuments, also, albeit superficially, the history of Nations, traces of which surround us. The antiquities of the New world it is otherwise. There, along the coast of Peru, across the Panama isthmus and North America, in the canyons of the Cordilleras, in the impassable gorges of the Andes, and especially beyond the valley of Mexico city lie the abandoned ruins of hundreds of once mighty cities, erased from people’s memories and even lost the name. Buried in dense forests and inaccessible valleys, sometimes at a depth of about 20 meters underground, they remain a mystery knock us off and keep silence more than the sphinxes of Egypt. We know absolutely nothing about America before the time of the Spanish conquest. There is no even relatively Continue reading