Come out from the banks of the underground river?
24 September lecture “Smart Moscow” held in the reading room of Turgenev lecture Maxim Deputatova, specialist in the history of the Moscow metro. The expert told about the underground rivers in the capital, but also about the very principle of construction of collectors and the history of such communications. We all know that the pipe size named in honor of the pipe, in which flows the river Neglinka, but did you know that a pipe was there during the reign of Catherine II? Slon leads a condensed version of the lecture.
In Moscow there are about 170 small rivers, streams. The city stands on this spot many centuries, it grows, develops, and with it changes and hydraulics. Why do people build all kinds of waterworks in the city (in the city, agriculture we do not consider)? The answer is simple: to solve the problem of wastewater – where else? Wastewater is not just sewage, and any liquid waste of human life. How did you solve the required problem old man? Yes is not solved, just poured all over the fence and calmed down. But slowly the ideas came to dig some channels, pin boards, stones. And even better – tile the top. Thus appeared the first drainage tunnels. The famous Maxim of the Roman Cloaca ( Cloaca Maxima, the Great sewer) was one of the first drainage systems in the world, it was built in the VI century BC and has survived to the present Continue reading
Baroque, Rococo, techno, Gothic and many other styles represented on the streets of Polish cities. Time, wars, human envy has not spared the architectural masterpieces of Warsaw (Warszawa), Gdynia (Gdynia), Malbork (Malbork) and many other less famous fortresses. Especially cruel to the architectural masterpieces was the Second World war. Technologies of destruction have multiplied and the Nazis were not slow to use them in the mercenary purposes: all that it was impossible to carry with him – mercilessly exploded. And only unparalleled courage and divine Providence can explain the rescuing of Krakow (Krakow).
Unprecedented scale has reached the restoration work. Over the years, literally brick by brick restored Royal castle (Zamek Krolewski w Warszawie), Royal łazienki (Lazenkovsky Palace) the Palace, Ujazdowski castle (Zamek Ujazdowski), the castle complex (Zamek Krolewski w Leczycy). Absolutely can not believe that the historic centre of Warsaw built-up buildings not older than 50 years. Now it’s not only the monuments of culture is testimony to the great love of the poles of their heritage.
First, extant, objects belong to the Romanesque style. Harsh churches, high trehspalnye the aisle, no decorations. An example is the Cistercian Cathedral in Oliva, located in close proximity of Gdansk (Gdansk) in the 13th century.
In contrast to the minimalist forms of the early middle ages, architects century 21 Continue reading
The mysterious gate
In Polynesia there is a unique stone building of the XI century – the Gate of Tonga. According to the legend, at certain times of the year, passing through this gate, you can get into the habitat of the local God and also to return.
In other myths it is the place of the burning of dead chiefs, a symbol of family ties. Ufologists believe that here has not done without the aliens.
Tonga gates are in the East of the island of Tongatapu, known as the treasure of the past Polynesia, its cradle. Now it is an archaeological reserve.
This part of the island with dick and desert. For miles stretched the deserted white shores and bays. Placesa tide at the coral reefs, the rustle of palm fronds in the wind.
I can not believe that many centuries ago to those deserted places seething life. Evidence of this is scattered all over the island remains of settlements “Moi”, most of which are located in the East. The largest of these ancient settlements called Muu and is located on the shore of the lagoon.
Next to him is the plaque, dedicated to the landing on the island James cook. Apparently, the island has changed little externally since the XVIII century, when the celebrated traveler, seeing him for the first time, called Tongatapu “continuous garden.” Then cook met with local leaders and said that they know their ancestry, are the custodians of legends and traditions Continue reading