Beliefs of the ancient Greeks
Some signs of the agricultural life of the Greeks we see first of all in the image business the hassle of Polyphemus, in the household utensils of his cave. Note, incidentally, that at first this cave amazes ahead only by its size: “the extensive cave”, and then this epithet is replaced by other, expressively convey the feelings the unwitting captives, their attitude to the place of his imprisonment: “scary cave”, “cave slime”, “dark cave”.
In the cave of Polyphemus “was a lot of cheese in reed baskets, buckets and bowls were filled to the brim with thick yogurt”, “corners hidden in a separate locked were goats, and sheep. “. We find out how prepared the cheese: “Half tide milk in pletenica, he left it to agustela to the cheese”, etc. In the parsed fragment of the Odyssey, Readers will find the reflection and beliefs of the ancient Greeks. Upon arriving at the island of the Cyclops, Odysseus and his companions perform the sacrifice (most likely a libation of wine) to Zeus, the protector of strangers; its appearance on the island Odysseus explains the will of the gods: “So it was, of course, want mighty Zeus. “. He is convinced that the violation of the laws of hospitality, revenge. strictly heavenly Crown”. Even Cyclops, “not knowing the truth” Polyphemus, does not deny the power of the “thunder of Zeus”, but he is not afraid of the “immortal gods” and is not considered with their power. Other Cyclopes who inhabit the island, recognize the power of Zeus; this is evidenced by their appeal to the blinded Polyphemus: “But if she is, the will of Zeus, not escape it.
Besides Zeus, in the episode God is mentioned Poseidon of the seas (Poseidon)—the father of the Cyclops Polyphemus. If Odyssey, of course, who worship Zeus, the Lord of the seas his attitude is somewhat different. This can be judged on the basis of a fictional story, which tells of Odysseus, responding to in-practicaba, where the ship that brought the Greeks to the island:
God Posidon, the bends of the earth, my ship destroyed,
Throwing it a short distance from the local Brega on the rocks
The Cape is steep and rough seas, the wreckage bore.
Odysseus is not afraid to make God of Poseidon the party never happened, obviously believing that the sea Lord is not omniscient. In moments of particularly significant and responsible Odyssey refers to the goddess of wisdom Pallas Athena, daughter of Zeus:
I started to invent the tool
How would the enemy to revenge, and begged for the protection of the Pallada
In the poems of Homer, Athena is depicted a constant patron of Odysseus. she helps him in all troubles and often appears before my eyes in the guise of ordinary ludie intercession before Zeus helps Odysseus after a decade of wandering across the seas to return to the “sweet land of the FATHERS”.
As a result biographical materials, and information about the era studied the works for many years disappeared from the program in literature for the middle grades. It is necessary, apparently, to return to this difficult problem, the more directly it is connected with the analysis of the literary work. Some steps in her resolution was made by the compilers of anthologies for educational middle classes, increasing in past editions of stories about writers and stories providing these questions and tasks, which makes teachers not to neglect this material, regarding it as an introduction to the epoch of the writer, as preparing us to perceive the works, forcing to think about the role of it for his and our time.
It does not follow, of course, what with the stories about the writer and should begin working on each topic. Way diverse. From personal experience, proposed some of them. If we study the works of the children of the writer, for example N. V. Gogol, Tolstoy or E. Nosova in the seventh grade, it is advisable to choose the natural way of reading and only at the final stage to acquaint themselves with the life of the writer. In this case, the biographical story is not only a result but also a response to emerging in the process of analyzing questions about the writer and a kind of preparation for us to extracurricular reading. If we study the works of famous children writer, it is necessary to him to remember all that was read earlier, what is known about his life. Then study the work will be perceived in the context of the life and work of the writer, in the context of his era. Similar recommendations are needed, we believe, not only in the techniques and workbooks, where they are embodied in specific material, but in the programs in literature that guide teachers in their work.