Architecture of Ancient Egypt
Architecture of Ancient Egypt
The main vegetation for the construction of a palm tree, giving a tree of poor quality, and cane. So the main building material was stone.
Stone architecture of Ancient Egypt primarily served the needs of religion. Palaces, houses were built of light materials and short-lived. Stone was only erected temples of the gods and complexes of tombs, and they were built for ages. Naturally, these stone structures have survived, withstood the test of time. In Egypt begins the history of architecture. Still a great many tourists come to see the Egyptian pyramids. Not for nothing that they called one of the seven wonders of the world. Secrets of the Egyptian pyramids excite the imagination. Scientists still discover new amazing properties of pyramids .
For those beyond the present comprehension of long millennia of Ancient Egyptian history it is impossible to establish an accurate archaeological date can not be established, therefore, in the present state of our knowledge of the monuments of Egypt have to classify in the order of their contemporary dynasties. A basic understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based on the study structures the best preserved religious monuments.
The architecture of Ancient Egypt is usually divided into 5 periods:
Century gave way to centuries. Each new period brought significant changes in the architecture. Constructed huge pyramids, tombs and rock temples that had only the internal volumes. However, in General, ancient Egyptian architecture was distinguished by monotony. There are traits that remain unchanged, have gone through all the stages of the development of ancient Egyptian architecture. There are examples when in Egypt the same things made the same way, starting from the early dynasties down to the period of Roman rule, that is, for as much as 3,500 years.
The uniformity of construction methods can also be explained by geographical isolation of Egypt from other civilized countries, where there were skilled builders, and it made it impossible for Egyptian architects so necessary in the case of competition in architecture.
For centuries formed the distinctive features of the architecture of Ancient Egypt:
the geometrism of forms,
rhythmic repetition of identical images,
Monumentality rooted in the whole nature of Egyptian architecture, in each period of its history finds another embodiment.
The pyramid is striking and suppresses its grandeur. The monumentality of the pyramids is expressed all the features of its architectural composition: the geometrism of forms, conciseness, majestic calmness, the lack of decor. Covering the entire outer surface smooth polished slabs of limestone give the impression of a monolith perfect geometric shape.
The monumentality of the temples of the New Kingdom is manifested in the Majesty of proportions, grandeur of dimensions, the mandatory introduction of scale.
Detail, repeating in a smaller size form, dominant in the construction, emphasizes the value of the building.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is extremely conditional. It is characterized by a peculiar system of symbols. Types of facilities:
the dwelling of the dead,
home of the gods,
A characteristic feature of the architecture of Ancient Egypt was the gallery (corridor). Large pillared halls and courtyards were gallery type, this is evidenced by the stacking direction of the beams and the orientation of the wall paintings on the piers. The inner rooms followed one another in one direction and along one axis. The location and adjacency of separate spaces that correspond to the layout of the gallery, usually it was linear.
Starting from the sanctuary, in the architecture of the temple structures of Ancient Egypt, from the entrance, rooms and halls became more spacious, increased volume of premises, the ceiling height was increased. The building was opened, like a flower of the plant. The opposite conception the Egyptians used at construction of pyramids. Central planning structures is a rare exception.
In the Egyptian buildings of the time the stones were laid without mortar and without any artificial linkages. Judging by some of the surviving columns of the temple at Karnak, before laying the stone the Egyptians tipped clean only bed and vertical joints; facial surface of the stones will find their feet among at the end of the building. Subsequently this technique was used by the Greeks.
External forms of the buildings were very simple: sloping and preposterone pyramids and prisms. The window has not been a characteristic element in the buildings of the ancient Egyptians, they met very rarely only on the facade of the building.
As a result of the simplicity of architectural forms, building surfaces inside and out were flat and smooth. The geometric monotony and isolation inherent in Egyptian architecture, softened by numerous wall paintings, texts and bas-reliefs.
Motives of ornaments of buildings in Egypt is symbolic, so for example – a solar disc symbolizing the sun God RA, the scarab, or sacred beetle. Also often there are thickets of papyrus, palm leaves, Lotus flowers. The hieroglyphs in the wall texts were used not only for decorative purposes but also to keep the gods that were worshipped, historical events, wars, life of the ancient Egyptians, the life and death of pharaohs who ruled ancient government.