The architecture of Gothic cathedrals
The architecture of Gothic cathedrals
The architecture of Gothic cathedrals makes a double impression. With one hand of a person striking virtuosity of stone designs, a bold idea engineer, a wonderful sense of statics, according to P. L. Nervi, an almost unthinkable combination of experience and skills for the building in kind. On the other hand, an impassioned religious feeling of the unusual, mysterious transformation of bulky heavy stone in a visually light and airy lace.
The main source of information of Gothic architecture becomes a structural and thematic plastic. Monumental, impregnable walls enclosed, confined spaces Romanesque buildings give way to the dismembered elements of the stone frame of the surface, not having, as the internal space, clear material boundaries.
Changing figurative language — statics, stability do not meet the thoughts loose from feudal dependence of citizens. Increasing the public value of the free cities, awakening the feeling of human dignity, opportunity, individual personality dynamics more consistent looks to the sky, spires, spirituality, emotionality, inconsistency like dissolving in the air dematerialized form. But the main story of its time and people is a theme of plastic.
Gothic cathedrals is a kind of encyclopedia, written in stone. In the famous Cathedral in Chartres have a total of about ten thousand figures.
A complex allegory, allegorical moralizing, idealistic views and realistic individual plots in plastic images tell us about the old Testament prophesying about the end of the world, resurrect ancient myths, commentsirout the Bible, demonstrate fantastic beasts and perefraziruya folk beliefs. Each image, each figure has instructed the believers, taught them the knowledge of divine revelation. Understanding hidden in ordinary things the wisdom of God was not by visible perception of the real world, and due to the allegorical sense, which was invested in each piece.
The earthly world is interpreted by the Church as a reflection of the heavenly, hidden, reflection. Accordingly, and in works of art was estimated is not the object itself, and enclosed in it the “divine idea”.
In the beginning of IX century Archbishop G. Mainz Raban the moor is “dictionary” symbols of the sacred Scriptures, that “cover all “things” — from horse harness and furnace of the pot-to the consubstantial Trinity”” bothered a Lot by the Abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denn the Suger (C. 1081-1151.) over interpretation of the Bible and the expression of abstract, ideal concepts using a specific image. The activities of Suger is connected and bold reconstruction of the Abbey Church in Saint-Denis, which played a significant role in the development of new principles of Gothic architecture, in the context of the struggle of the Church against all sorts of innovations was difficult.
In the introduction to “dangerous innovations” Suger helped his high secular position, he was a Royal Minister, and even for three years the Regent of France. In his manuscript, Suger describes the restructuring of the old Basilica, the main purpose of which was to expand the room and giving him a decent, good show.
The suger, who gave the monks the evening of Horace, sought to harmony and coherence of all parts. Undoubtedly participated in the construction as a thought leader, he writes: “…
was prudently calculated, namely by using the geometric and arithmetic tools that the width of the middle part of the choir was commensurate with the middle section of the main nave of the old Church and the new over the lateral naves meet the old course”. One of the creators of allegorical language, Suger, when it came to practice, was quite rational, as evidenced by his assertion that “…unenlightened mind rises to the truth through material”.
In vestment material in a spiritual religious clothing manifested the inconsistency of Gothic architecture, which can be expressed paradoxical words, “unreal reality”. Shaped in the disclosure era, its socio-economic relations and ideology played a significant role fundamental compositional regularities that organize the power of plastic expression.