Gothic architecture in France
Gothic architecture in France
In Rheims Cathedral is no less clearly seen several construction stages led by different masters. The choir, begun by Jean d Orba and finished to 1241 Jean Le Loup, retains the simplicity and severity of large architectural masses. Prevailing in its strict spirit of greatness sharply differs from the famous Western facade of the Cathedral, from top to bottom covered with stone carvings. In the southern and Northern facades of the transepts Jean d Orba still used semicircular arches of the Romanesque and the choir in General came from the architectural composition of the early Gothic Church in Arba, built, apparently, with his direct participation, and may be, and under his leadership. Although the portals of the Western façade were started under Jean Le Loup, but the final design and its luxurious sculptural decorations they found in Gaucher of Reims, who led the construction of the Western façade in годах151 1247-1255. He deepened the portals changed their estimated Jean Le Loup, the location of the statues that crowned the entrance tympanum tracery and richly decorated, the whole lower level of the facade.
Bernard Seasonski, who continued the construction of the Western façade at approximately 1255 1290 year and concentrates on the exquisite beauty of a huge stone roses second tier, has changed the pattern the proportions of the Windows and draughts, making them even more fragile, spindly and light in accordance with the tastes of the second half of the thirteenth century. Thereby easing the proportions of the building in the upper tiers, he has given it a special lightness and aspiration height, and the decorative effect created under his leadership, the gallery of kings many times reinforced facade produced by the impression of decorative splendour and wealth. Towers with extremely elongated, fragile proportions of Windows did the rest, the artistic appearance of the facade.
With the accumulation of experience, with the development of structural features and evolution of style has developed and improved the creative method of the Gothic masters. He gave the most brilliant results in striking the integrity of the composition Reims Cathedral, in a stately interior which is a merger of architectural forms in a single movement that creates a sense of infinite development, and the richness of the scenery and the elegance of the composition of the Western façade are unmatched. In it significantly beat the living creative thought.
6. The Cathedral in Amiens
The Cathedral, built by Robert de Luzarches is a true masterpiece of Gothic architecture and also the last in a series of Gothic cathedrals of Ile-de-France, erected in the XIII century. The Cathedral was so large that could accommodate the entire population of Amiens, numbering at that time about 10 thousand people. The previous Cathedral was destroyed in the tenth century, invaded the territory of France by the Normans. It was later rebuilt, but burned down in 1137. The third time the Cathedral was rebuilt and consecrated in 1152, and this time burned down in 1218. Located near the Cathedral a small Church. Firmin survived the fire. In it were kept the relics of St. Firmin, the first Bishop of the city of Amiens, therefore, the Church cannot be demolished until the completion of the new Cathedral, where, and decided to transfer the relics of the Saint. Due to the urgent need to build the fourth and last building (Cathedral, 1220-1236) began with a longitudinal part, the choir was built later. Then the old Church was demolished and on its foundations was raised the Northern arm of the transept and the Northern part of the choir.
The Amiens Cathedral is beautiful from all sides. Slim tower tent lantern above the crossing enhances the overall impression of striving upward and emphasizes the height of Gothic design. Light graceful buttresses, surmounted with pinnacles that rise from the base of the Cathedral to its roof. Huge the rose window of the Western façade belongs to the XV century. On the facade are three portals and the gallery with sculptures in niches. The tower facade is asymmetric: the Northern tower above South. On the Central portal of the medieval sculpture of Christ.
Beautiful middle nave of the Cathedral was seen as the personification of the idea of a vertical composition of a Gothic Cathedral; in the threefold division of its walls the height of the arcade piers of the lower layer reached a height of triforia and lantern together. The sense of height is enhanced by the streams of light pouring through the glass of the lamp, a slim, soaring groups of columns with pointed arches, and a sleek vertical lines of the lattice stained glass Windows in the sanctuary.
Many cathedrals of France suffered during the Revolution, when the sculptures and reliefs were smashed by the thousands. Thanks to the efforts of influential citizens of Amiens, which was blocked by the revolutionaries access to the Cathedral, the losses there were minimal, although one could not avoid the plundering still failed. 110 seats in the choir is considered the best in France. They were made at the beginning of the XVI century. They are decorated with sculptural reliefs with scenes from the old Testament and the life of citizens (4500 pieces).