Gothic, in short – it’s an architectural style, replacing the Romanesque style, from the XII century. He dominated throughout Europe until the fifteenth century, and in some countries, existed in the XVI century.
The word Gothic has no relation to the Germanic tribe is ready. At first it was used in a pejorative sense by the leaders of the Renaissance, who compared all of the prior art with a barbaric forms. In France, the Gothic style was called the “pointed style”. Now Gothic is considered an outstanding architectural style of the middle ages.
The main features of Gothic architecture were:
the desire up, ease of architectural forms;
large height of the structure;
pointed arches; peaked roof;
large Windows with stained glass;
a large number of sculpted figures;
Romanesque style in architecture was necessary during the civil wars and represented primarily on the architecture of fortifications. Gothic became necessary during the active urban expansion. Completely new types of buildings: exchange, market, court, hospital, town hall.
Gothic, in short, gave the city a new, graceful and light appearance, but at the same time majestic.
The temple of the XIII century is now not only a place for worship. Here now play theatrical performances, organize debates the students. The city was growing, and we need was that the temple could accommodate all residents.
And builders, so as not to thicken the walls and do massive construction, created a new design. They began to use the arched vaults and a special system of ribs, which are evenly distributed load. The use of supporting pillars, which now had the full weight of the arch, helped to expand the space facilities. Instead of narrow loopholes now it was possible to do a wide Windows, decorated with beauty colorful stained-glass Windows.
The most magnificent example of Gothic architectural style was the Cathedral of Notre Dame. He is known for the “gallery of kings” and a great number of figures of chimeras, which frightened incoming.
The sculpture is also widely used in the Gothic style, as in romance. Most often used of the statue-columns and monumental statues. Gothic is also widely used sculptural stone carving is a depiction of flowers and leaves.
Gothic loses its significance with the advent of the Renaissance in the sixteenth century.