The origins of architecture
The origins of architecture
The construction belongs to the most ancient human activities, which means that many thousands of years ago the Foundation was laid for the future development of architecture.
The prehistoric period through the use of different material and techniques of making tools can be divided into the following main stages: stone ( of the stone age — Paleolithic new stone — Neolithic ), bronze and iron ages. However it is very difficult to clearly define their boundaries, as the development of human society has always been uneven.
Preserved remains of human settlements indicate the existence of different lifestyles of people in different areas of the globe and at different stages in the history of mankind.
Obnaruzhena dwellings of the early period of the upper Paleolithic represent probobally in terms of dwelling with one hearth. Most often it is the dugout, a large number of which were found in different regions of the CIS (left-Bank Ukraine, the Dnipro basin, districts of the Bryansk, Voronezh, Irkutsk etc). Also in the late Paleolithic period, there were more elongated and greater in size dwelling, if attached to each other oval dugouts, with multiple foci. At the end of late Paleolithic experiencing temporary hunting camps, seasonal camps. In addition to the dugouts, poluzemlyanok and ground dwellings with a frame made of bones of large animals, constructed temporary dwellings, huts.
In the Neolithic, the so-called period of the “stone axe” already built semidugouts, dwellings of wood, reeds, twigs and clay. The most developed type of buildings the Neolithic age — pile dwellings – the buildings resting on wooden piles, which were usually built over rivers and lakes in the wetland area. The proliferation of such type of settlements due to defensive considerations, as well as the convenience of fishing in fish ponds. Swaye structures were built in a variety of territories in Central Europe, CIS, also the so-called community house (this type of housing — “Pueblo” until recently, existed among the American Indians). Of this type closed, inaccessible from the outside dwellings were built in other parts of the world that used a polished stone axe. The main building material was wood. It is noteworthy that in large dwellings centric plan arranged several household fires and one large one in the center – a ritual purpose. Build free-standing religious structures – the altars . and premises of the temples .
In Northern Italy discovered settlement (circa 1800 BC) original character: at the pillars arranged along the circle deck, which housed the hut. Around the village was built a wooden fence and dig a moat filled with water.
In Anatolia discovered an ancient fortified settlement belonging to the seventh-sixth Millennium BC (C the Atal Guzek, Mersin, Hacilar). Since only half of the third Millennium BC the Neolithic culture of the Aegean region extends into Northern and Western Europe via natural waterways — the Danube, with its swimming pool and the Mediterranean sea.
The beginning of architecture as art appeared, when the building began to operate not only the laws necessary, but the laws of beauty. In the bronze age, in the middle of the second Millennium BC. almost everywhere in Europe (on the territory of modern Spain, France, Northern Europe, Ireland, Scotland, Greece, Belgium), and in China, Korea, India, along the Mediterranean coast, in Tunisia, Egypt and many other countries, built the monumental stone structures of the huge boulders – menhirs, dolmens, cromlechs, cyclopean fortresses and settlements — the so-called megalithic architecture (gr. medas — big + lithos — stone). The purpose of these structures was associated mainly with religious ceremonies and commemorative events.
Menhirs — the vertically set, usually unworked stones of considerable height, page memorials or monuments, they meant the public ceremonies. The menhirs steveville alone or in groups, in some cases, the long rows (“alley” menhirs in Brittany). Sometimes the tops of menhirs culminate in the image of a head. Menhirs sometimes reached 20 m in height and 300 tons in weight. Sometimes menhirs occur in conjunction with the dolmens.
A dolmen usually consists of two or four large standing vertical stones that support a horizontal rough hewn stone slab (Denmark, Brittany). Dolmens were originally small in size — about 2 m in length and about 1.5 m in height, but later they gave to the large size and sometimes arranged an approach to them in the form of a stone gallery. They are often located so that they form long corridors of space. Dolmens served most often sarcophagi, burial chambers of members of the genus and at the same time tombstones.
The cromlech . the megalithic structures, constructed of vertically positioned stone pillars or slabs, arranged in a circle, they are interconnected put on top of stone blocks.
Outstanding construction of this kind is Stonehenge near Salisbury in southern England, created, apparently, in the middle of the second Millennium BC, probably, is primitive the temple or the theater. This cromlech consists of a massive four – and eight stones, placed vertically and forming centric composition with a diameter of 30 m. Inside are two rings of small stones, surrounded by stone pillars of Stonehenge, forming several concentric circles, one from a small menhirs, another, Central, — of huge blocks in pairs are covered with stone blocks. Center of the architectural composition is a rectangular plate. Stone blocks are carefully processed with stone tools, indicating a considerable skill and the level of development of the people of that time, that they have a sense of spatial composition. The purpose of Stonehenge remains unclear. Possible, the middle part was the sanctuary, and the Central stone slab was the altar. Around the monument were found mass burial. There is an assumption about the use of this cromlech in astronomical purposes, observed in the composition and certain laws associated with astronomy, which, however, often met in the architecture of ancient times (Egypt, Central America). Two concentric stone circle around the sanctuary are the roads and paths around the sanctuary. Guess they were designed to hold equestrian competitions.
Particularly noteworthy are log buildings (spread in the second half of II thousand. BC – beginning of I thousand.), in particular, the barrows, are also common structures of a memorial nature. Their prototype there were people living in log houses. During the construction of the first mound in the pit was constructed of powerful wood log building with wooden floors, inside of which were arranged the burial chamber – a log box. Sometimes the space between two chambers filled with stones. Overlapping camera setups logs were covered with birch bark, bark. Then covered with earth, forming burial hill, often of considerable height. On top of the hill was drawing a stone.
Log homes were the first step towards the creation of ground chopped wooden buildings, was widespread among the Baltic, Finnish and Turkic tribes, as in the wooded regions of Central and Seven in Europe. If the stone and Adobe houses were usually built round in plan, the long logs laid horizontally, was multi-faceted buildings, over time, transformed into a one-room rectangular house. In the middle is located the hearth, the smoke coming out of the hole in the roof above him. Before the entrance was often the place of the “front”. In Northern Europe during the excavations found the foundations of these houses. This type of construction was later called “Megaron”, they formed the basis of Greek architecture, including Greek temple .
Along with a memorial and ceremonial structures in the later stages of development of primitive society, a new type of architectural buildings — stone and wooden fortress . Characteristic of the so-called cyclopean fortress, with walls built of huge blocks of stone. In areas of poor stone, but full of forests, spread of settlement: “settlement”, a fortified log stockade, ramparts and moats. Originally, the fortress had a defensive wall, and later inside the fortress could be built a second wall around the citadel — the seat of the chieftain and nobility. In the iron age (first Millennium BC) in the Scythian state-Naples Scythian was enclosed by a strong wall of crushed stone on clay mortar
Primitive architecture were the basis of the architecture of the early class States of the Ancient East.
A striking example of the architecture of ancient class societies that emerged in Asia, Africa and other countries of the Ancient East, the geographical scope of which is very extensive, is the architecture of Ancient Egypt. which created a Grand monumental edifice to the glory of the pharaohs.