The circus Maximus (Great circus) (Circus Maximus) stretches along the South-Western slope of the Palatine. According to legend, a huge amphitheatre was built during the time of kings on the site of the abduction of the Sabine women. Flat valley between two parallel slopes of the Palatine and Aventine was originally perfect natural arena over a length of 600 and a width of 90 m almost ready with stands for 200 thousand spectators. When Caesar tribunes dressed in stone. The site of the giant Hippodrome were divided by a longitudinal wall that abigale competing chariots. Adorns the wall of the Egyptian obelisks are now in the squares of Rome, the circus Maximus was the ruins of a small section of the stands in the Southeast corner of the arena.
The circus occupied a space of more than 600 meters long and 140 meters wide, in the hollow between the hills of the Aventine and the Palatine. This place was once called the valley of Murcia. The first construction in the valley Murcia dates back to the era of Tarquinii and is connected with the system of channels allowing the soil to drain. Perhaps at this time were built a few structures, but in the future time, the elements and outside interventions had violated their integrity.
The circus Maximus therefore and is called that it was the largest amphitheatre in Rome, it is through his sample was later built similar structures. The circus was a truly tremendous spectacle: it contained about two hundred thousand spectators and was the venue for the competitions of the chariots and Quadriga, occurring fifty times in a year. You can call the circus a kind of racetrack on a gigantic scale.
At first the stands were made of wood, but this material was extremely flammable, and so Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) was ordered to replace them on a stone. And in 46 BC in commemoration of the victories in Africa, he gave in the Circus a great holiday: a mock battle, in which participated thousands of foot-soldiers, six hundred horsemen, and forty elephants. Many times destroyed by fire, the circus Maximus was rebuilt, was rebuilt in the era of Domitian (81-96) and Trajan (53-117гг.), was rebuilt of brick masonry. Numerous restructuring the Circus during the reign of different emperors now can be identified by the form obtained during the excavations fragments of the brickwork in some areas. The circus Maximus is continuing its role as the amphitheatre and the place of different celebrations, games, competitions up to the year 549, when Attila (433-453,) spent here the last game.